Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received global attention because of their excellent photovoltaic performance and ease of fabrication. Reaching power conversion efficiencies over 24% demonstrates that the hybrid organic inorganic lead tri-halide perovskites are the most promising class of materials for next-generation thin film photovoltaics. The unprecedented increase in the device performance in less than 10 years is because of improved processing protocols, and compositional engineering of mixed cations, and anions of the perovskite materials.1,2 Another advantage of perovskite solar cell is their simple fabrication through solution-processing methods, either in n-i-p or p-i-n configurations.3,4 The perovskite absorbing layer is consisting of methylammonium lead (II) iodide (MAPbI3) is intrinsically unstable at elevated temperature due to methylammonium cation release. Therefore, compositional engineered cations and anions perovskite [FA0.8MA0.15Cs0.05PbI(3-x)Brx] developed with solvent engineering method to reach over 22% efficiency.5 Nevertheless, the remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) progression of perovskite materials, unfortunately, confronts with serious stability concerns, due to an intrinsic decomposition of the materials compromising their potentiality as a future market technology. In recent years, strategies using mixed composition and 2-Dimensional perovskite materials have been developed towards stable device performance.6 In this talk, we present layer by layer deposition of 3-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional perovskites and the novel charge transporting materials. We reveal the impact of 2D/3D crystal alignment in driving the interface charge-recombination dynamics. The 2D crystal growth and orientation are manipulated by functionalized cations to form 2-Dimensional perovskite. Such findings provide a deep understanding and delineate precise guidelines for the smart design of multi-dimensional perovskite interfaces for advanced PV and beyond.
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(2) NREL Best Research-Cell Efficiencies; https://www.nrel.gov/pv/assets/pdfs/pv-efficiency-chart.20190103.pdf.
(3). J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin and M. Grätzel, Nature, 2013, 499, 316-319.
(4). C. Roldán-Carmona, O. Malinkiewicz, A. Soriano, G. Mínguez Espallargas, A. Garcia, P. Reinecke, T. Kroyer, M. I. Dar, M. K. Nazeeruddin and H. J. Bolink, Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 994-997.
(5). N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo and S. I. Seok, Nature, 2015, 517, 476-480.
(6). K. T. Cho, G. Grancini, Y. Lee, E. Oveisi, J. Ryu, O. Almora, M. Tschumi, P. A. Schouwink, G. Seo, S. Heo, J. Park, J. Jang, S. Paek, G. Garcia-Belmonte and M. K. Nazeeruddin, Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, 11, 952-959.